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is the hemodialysis ?
"Renal insufficiency" is a term that designates
the more or less significant deterioration of the functioning
of both kidneys. During the 1950s, some dialysis centers
had "artificial kidneys" to treat water-electrolyte
balance, but not end-stage renal failure. This disease
was therefore fatal until before the 1960s. This new "hemodialysis"
technique was still very rudimentary. Then he implemented
very heavy systems, with demanding manipulations. Hemodialysis
times of 12 hours every 2 days were very frequent and
painfully tolerated. The great technical and medical progress
allowed an extremely rapid progression of the number of
treatments as well as a better tolerance (children, elderly).
Since then, hemodialysis has become much safer and thus
it has also been able to reach the patient's home, offering
them a better quality of life. Dialysis is also a mandatory
preparatory phase for kidney transplantation.
is a small link to a simple video to understand what dialysis
can find a lot of videos or documents, on YouTube for
example, dealing with the theme of dialysis..
Today, a dialysis session lasts about 4 hours. The hemodialysis
machine has a pump that draws blood from the patient at
a controlled rate, allowing it to pass through a filter
called a dialyzer. The pumped blood is returned to the
patient immediately after leaving the dialyzer. In addition
to the blood access (inlet / outlet) it has another connection
(inlet / outlet) that allows the supply of a liquid (the
dialysis liquid) of a certain composition, generated by
the machine. Blood and dialysis fluid are separated by
a thin semi-permeable membrane that acts as a filter.
It is perforated with microholes that can only borrow
very small particles. Therefore, neither blood cells or
(larger) bacteria can pass through it. Only water and
very small substances can be removed. The dialysis fluid
is responsible for extracting these elements and directing
them to the sewer. Thus the purification of the blood
is carried out.
A patient with kidney failure can also undergo treatment
at home, if desired. A large number of medical associations
in France allow access to this complex technique at home.
They allow all patients to receive high-quality hemodialysis
or peritoneal dialysis treatment, at home or in a self-dialysis
unit. These associations use dialysis techniques that
are always at the forefront of progress. They are constantly
investing for the safety and comfort of their patients.
Hemodialysis is possible thanks to a vascular access located
in the patient's forearm, called "fistula."
This operation, performed by the urologic surgeon, connects
a vein to an artery. As a result, the vein is enlarged
following the blood flow that has become significantly
more important (visible in the photo on the right). Dialysis
nurses can thus take advantage of the flexibility of this
dilated vein to place the two needles used to draw and
return the blood to be treated. Healing after treatment
is also faster. A fistula is not the only vascular access
possible to dialyze a patient, but it is by far the most
Water treatment for hemodialysis is a very important link
in the technical chain, whether the care is provided at
the patient's home or in a hospital. The material involved
is just more or less imposing. All this equipment must
ensure that all unwanted microelements found in tap water
are removed : chlorine, calcium, magnesium, aluminum,
all bacteria (aerobic and anaerobic). Bacteriological
and physicochemical samples are carried out periodically
along the chain, and must be quickly sent to a laboratory,
in order to know the quality of the water.
Example of water treatment for a hemodialysis center